By the end of the twelfth week, your baby will be 2 ½ inches in length from crown to rump and will weigh about 14 grams. The digestive system of the baby will be able to produce contractions that will push food through the bowels. The baby will also be able to urinate at this stage, the baby’s kidneys start functioning.
The amniotic fluid is replaced every three hours so that the baby stays protected in a clean environment. The baby will be able to open/close its mouth, clench its fist and make facial expressions. The baby will also alternately be awake and fall asleep. The nails show up and hair of the baby starts to grow during the twelfth week of pregnancy.
Your uterus grows in size and you can feel it above your pelvic bone at the twelfth week of pregnancy. Your uterus will expand in capacity about 500-1000 times during pregnancy to be able to carry the baby, the amniotic fluid etc. Your chances of miscarriage reduce greatly after the twelfth week.
You must continue taking your vitamins and make sure that your baby is getting sufficient calcium and vitamin D, B12 and protein in your pregnancy diet. You can also try soy milk which is a rich source of protein. You must take smaller frequent meals to avoid heart burn during this stage of pregnancy. Skin changes and pigmentation can be experienced by some of you. Freckles and spots become darker.
A dark vertical line called linear nigra develops in the center of the abdomen which disappears on its own after delivery. There is considerable improvement in the reflexes and muscular movement of the baby. You should avoid all unhealthy habits like drinking, smoking etc. Regular monthly and weekly checkups should be undertaken to know about the normal growth of the baby.